Different approaches and characteristics of joint attention in visual impairment and autism spectrum disorder
In the joint attention research there are three alternative theoretical perspectives: cognitive-perceptual, language and social-affective. They all look for the answer the question, namely the role of joint attention in typical and atypical social and cognitive development. Joint attention has special significance for children with visual impairment and/or with autism spectrum disorders. The present article briefly discusses the nature of joint attention, and reviews some relevant researches on the development of children with visual impairment and/or autism spectrum disorder.
Procedural learning difficulties in developmental dyslexia
The aim of the present study is to show certain tendencies in the research of learning disorders, more specifically, of the developmental dyslexia from the viewpoint of the implicit/explicit knowledge.
Considering developmental dyslexia as a syndrome, the characteristics of the components of the syndrome should be looked for in the connections of the neural system (Toth-Csépe, 2007) and in this context, the neural-systems approach (Nicolson-Fawcett, 2007) is a kind of alternative conceptualization of the phonological and cerebellar deficit theories, which grew from Ullman’s procedural-declarative model (Ullman, 2004) and the newest cognitive neuroscience research on learning.
The theory of the language-based, procedural learning disorders are supported by the stimulus-specific anchors hypothesis (Ahissar, 2007), that connects well to those theories which consider dyslexia as a general difficulty of the acquisition of the fluent and automatic behaviour.
Protractions in stammering and normal spontaneous speech
One of the most characteristic symptoms of stuttering is the fitful lengthening of the initial speech sounds of the words. The occurrence and the phonetic properties of lengthening seem to be speaker-dependent. However, the lengthening is a phenomenon that can be found frequently in non-stuttering speech as well. The aim of our present paper is to define the criteria when lengthening as a disfluency would be considered as non-typical. According to our hypothesis there are differences concerning the speech sound durations and occurrences of lengthening between the stutterers’ and non-stutterers’ speech.
Barthel, Betty – Bognár, Alíz – Rácz, Katalin – Mrs. Fodor Dr. Földi, Rita
Basic Therapy versus intellectual disability?
Alapozó Terápia (Basic Therapy) is a motoric based development program. It was designed by the adoption of earlier theories and in-practice-gained experiences critically analyzed and supplemented with self-developed exercises. The process of developing the program was interdisciplinary and innovative and it was successfully introduced in various areas of learning disabilities (dyslexia, dysgraphy, hyperactivity, learning and behavior troubles).
Research is currently looking at the possibilities of using this new method in the development of children with intellectual disabilities. We followed 9 children’s progress between September 2005 and February 2007. The research was completed with a questionnaire about the opinion of the teacher, the therapist and the parents in the children’s performance change. The first scores of our analysis show that – in the hands of professionals – the therapy could be a useful method for children with mental disabilities as well. Positive changes have been realized above all in the area of cognitive and communicative abilities.
Dr. Kiss, Szidónia – Dr. Orbán, Réka
Inclusive education of children with behavioural disorder and learning difficulty
Inclusive education is a worldwide movement, based on human right issue, that every child, whatever its level of difficulties, should have the right to individually tailored high quality education together with more able peers and not be excluded from the mainstream because of certain learning difficulty. A common trait of children “at risk exclusion" is their deficient cognitive behavioral functioning. Mainstream schools are still the best places to develop social and cognitive competences if a welcoming attitude for differences is created. Cognitive and behavioral deficiencies are computable if they are properly activated. All the corrections can be done in the normal school and family environment with the support of cognitive and behavioral developmental programs. One of our project’s main objectives is to assure the transmission of experience and viewpoints regarding cognitive psychology, in order to closely relate the process of inclusion to the children’s cognitive development on the one hand, and to the active participation of the educators and teachers, on the other hand. Combining inclusive education with the methodology of cognitive development could offer several new educational opportunities for those who are excluded by society.